Gravitational Lagrangians, Mach’s principle, and the equivalence principle in an expanding universe

Authors: Essén, H.
Document Type: Article
Pubstate: Published
Journal: Journal of Gravity
Volume: 2014   415649--1-5
Year: 2014


Gravitational Lagrangians as derived by Fock for the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann approach, and by Kennedy assuming only a fourth rank tensor interaction, contain long range interactions. Here we investigate how these affect the local dynamics when integrated over an expanding universe out to the Hubble radius. Taking the cosmic expansion velocity into account in a heuristic manner it is found that these long range interactions imply Mach’s principle, provided the universe has the critical density, and that mass is renormalized. Suitable higher order additions to the Lagrangians make the formalism consistent with the equivalence principle.