Stability and Receptivity of Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers

Respondent Huvudhandledare Bihandledare Datum
David Tempelmann Dan Henningson Ardeshir Hanifi 2009-12-14

Stefan Hein, DLR - Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology



The stability and the receptivity of three-dimensional flat plate boundary layers is studied employing parabolised stability equations. These allow for computationally efficient parametric studies. Two different sets of equations are used. The stability of modal disturbances in the form of crossflow vortices is studied by means of the well-known classical parabolised stability equations (PSE). A new method is developed which is applicable to more general vortical-type disturbances. It is based on a modified version of the classical PSE and describes both modal and non-modal growth in three-dimensional boundary layers. This modified PSE approach is used in conjunction with a Lagrange multiplier technique to compute spatial optimal disturbances in three-dimensional boundary layers. These take the form of streamwise oriented tilted vortices initially and develop into streaks further downstream. When entering the domain where modal disturbances become unstable optimal disturbances smoothly evolve into crossflow modes. It is found that non-modal growth is of significant magnitude in three-dimensional boundary layers. Both the lift-up and the Orr mechanism are identified as the physical mechanisms behind non-modal growth.\\ Furthermore, the modified PSE are used to determine the response of three-dimensional boundary layers to vortical free-stream disturbances. By comparing to results from direct numerical simulations it is shown that the response, including initial transient behaviour, is described very accurately. Extensive parametric studies are performed where effects of free-stream turbulence are modelled by filtering with an energy spectrum characteristic for homogeneous isotropic turbulence. It is found that a quantitative prediction of the boundary layer response to free-stream turbulence requires detailed information about the incoming turbulent flow field. Finally, the adjoint of the classical PSE is used to determine the receptivity of modal disturbances with respect to localised surface roughness. It is shown that the adjoint approach yields perfect agreement with results from Finite-Reynold-Number Theory (FRNT) if the boundary layer is assumed to be locally parallel. Receptivity is attenuated if nonlocal and non-parallel effects are accounted for. Comparisons to direct numerical simulations and extended parametric studies are presented.